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Black Pepper Essential Oil (Piper nigrum)

By Ann C Wooledge
on July 03, 2015

Piper Nigrum (Black Pepper) essential oil Profile:

Family: Piperaceae
Main chemical constituents: b-caryophyllene, limonene, sabinene, b-pinene and a-pinene
Country of Origin - Sri Lanka, Certified Organic
Steam distilled from the dried berries

Gastrointestinal: Reported to relieve flatulence, and to be antitoxic, restores tone to lax muscles of the colon, a stimulant to the gastric juices, relieves nausea and decreases appetite. There are reports in the literature that black pepper can act as an antitoxic agent for food poisoning.

Musculoskeletal: Relieves aches and pains, sprains, muscle stiffness, rheumatism, neuralgia, and is generally an analgesic for muscular pain. We have found it to be very useful in our Spicey Muscle Oil to relieve muscular pain, nerve pain and reduce bruising in an almost immediate manner.

Central Nervous System: Reported to be antispasmodic and increases alertness and concentration. There are some indications in the literature that it is an aphrodisiac, perhaps this is why it is used in perfumery.

Urinary System: Reported to be a diuretic.

Respiratory & Immune System: Reported to be an expectorant, useful to fight against colds and influenza viruses. It is reported to be antimicrobial, diaphoretic, and reduces fever. Also reported to be an immune stimulant and helps relieve fevers.

Skin/Dermatological: Reported to be rubefacient (increases blood circulation to the skin), which is one of the reasons we use it in our Skin Renewal Intensive Facial Complex. I can personally attest to the undeniable fact that this oil has relieved severe bruising and pain almost immediately subsequent to closing my finger in a door on more than one occasion – yes, my proprioception might be of question, but the effectiveness of this oil is not.

General: There is a report from 1994 (Rose & Behm) that the symptoms from smoking withdrawal were lessened by the inhalation of the vapor from an “extract of black pepper”. Now whether we can extrapolate that to the use of an essential oil is not yet proven, but certainly should be tested.

Read my blog here for more about black pepper and cancer.

Safety/Cautions: The literature shows black pepper essential oil to be non-toxic and generally non-sensitizing, but could be a skin irritant in high concentrations due to its ability to increase blood circulation to the skin. It is also one of those oils that can easily oxidize and should be kept in a refrigerator or a cool dark location in an amber glass bottle.

IMPORTANT: All of our products are for external use only.

We also suggest you have a good working knowledge of the use of essential oils or consult with an aromatherapy professional prior to use. In addition, Essential Oils must be properly diluted before use in order to avoid any damages to property or adverse physical effects (including injury or bodily harm). Please read our Disclaimer before using our products.

Bergamot (Cirtrus bergamia) essential oil

By Ann C Wooledge
on March 15, 2011

Bergamot Essential Oil (Cistrus bergamia) Profile



Bergamot contains predominantly the aromatic constituents of linalol, limonene, and linalyl acetate. It belongs to the Rutacaea family as do all the citrus fruits such as grapefruit, lemon, mandarin, sweet orange and tangerine. All of the citrus oils we offer are obtained through cold pressed methods, and no steam distillation was employed to produce these oils. There are some distilled citrus oils on the market, lime being one that we will be offering soon. This oil is cold pressed from the peel.

Central Nervous System: Reported to be antispasmodic, a very effective antidepressant, used often and reliably for anxiety, and is effective for insomnia. The literature available agrees that this oil is very balancing, uplifting, enhances emotional control and reduces hyperactivity. Since it is considered to be somewhat sedating and tranquilizing, it has been used successfully to lower blood pressure that is caused by anxiety.

Gastrointestinal: Antiseptic, stomachic (tones the stomach improving its function and appetite), known to be an effective vermifuge (expels parasitic intestinal worms in humans and animals), and has also been reported to help regulate the appetite of overeaters. Bergamot is reported to be anti-toxic and to relieve flatulence. Bergamot is widely used in many major foods, most notably in Earl Grey Tea. It is interesting to note that the bergamot fruit is inedible, but the essential oil has many culinary uses. It is the characteristic flavor of Earl Grey tea and is used as a fragrance for pipe tobaccos..

Urinary: Reported to be “strongly” indicated for all urinary tract infections including cystitis and urethritis.

Skin/Dermatological: Very good treatment for oily skin, acne, eczema, psoriasis, boils, scabies or varicose ulcers. Also reported to be an effective deodorant, parasiticide, insect repellent, soothes insect bites and increases wound healing. Bergamot is referred to as a “rubefacient” oil, meaning that it can dilate capillaries and thereby increase blood circulation, which also means it is probably not a good choice for someone with rosacea for use in facial products. See safety/cautions below.

Reproductive System: Reported to be an effective treatment for vaginal infections, cancer (uterine). However, it has been recommended not to use this essential during the first trimester of pregnancy.

Respiratory: Reported to be effective for halitosis, relieves mouth sores, sore throat, tonsillitis and infections of the mouth.

Safety/Cautions: Bergamot contains furocoumarins, notably bergapten, which causes skin sensitization and skin pigmentation when exposed to direct UV light for up to 12 hours. It can and has caused severe burns when used on sensitive skin that is subsequently exposed to sunlight or sunbed rays.  We previously carried a bergapten-free or sometimes referred to as FCF, furanocoumarin-free oil, but the last shipment just didn't have the fragrance we expect in a good bergamot oil, so we opted to purchase the unrectified oil because the samples we received were amazIng. I think the best so far. The maximum concentration for most oils in concentration with a carrier is somewhere around 5%, but the IFRA recommends Bergamot to not exceed 0.4% in products that will not be washed off. We follow those guidelines in our products that contain Bergamot.

Bergamot, as are all cold-pressed citrus essential oils, prone to oxidation which will degrade the oil and make it more likely to cause allergic reactions and lose some of their potency. We keep our bergamot refrigerated and suggest that you do also. If unable to refrigerate, then keeping it in a cool, dark location will be okay. The shelf life, of course, will depend entirely on how you store and handle the essential oil. 

Avoid in cases of liver problems. Not for use when pregnant or nursing, some sources say not for use just during the 1st trimester. Possible skin irritant – dilute well.

IMPORTANT: All of our products are for external use only without a consultation with a qualified professional aromatherapist.

We also suggest you have a good working knowledge of the use of essential oils or consult with an aromatherapy professional prior to use. In addition, Essential Oils must be properly diluted before use in order to avoid any damages to property or adverse physical effects (including injury or bodily harm). Please read our Disclaimer before using our products.


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