An essential oil that is steam distilled from the berries that turn from red to black as they mature. Not to be confused with cayenne pepper or paprika, black and white pepper have been used for over 4,000 years for medicinal and culinary purposes. In Greece, it is reported, the plant was used against intermittent fever, which was believed to probably have been malaria. In several different sources, there is the story that the mendicant (refers to begging or dependent upon charitable donations) monks of India would travel great distances daily and relied on approximately 7 to 9 grains of pepper a day to give them “remarkable endurance”. Black pepper essential oil is also used in perfumery to acquire different and unique fragrances.